Second quarter   First six months
SEK M 2013 2012   2013 2012
Net sales 70,830 80,977   127,210 156,976
Cost of sales (55,943) (61,427)   (100,743) (120,033)
Gross income 14,887 19,550   26,467 36,943
           
   Gross margin, % 21.0 24.1   20.8 23.5
           
Research and development expenses (3,596) (3,884)   (7,222) (7,554)
Selling expenses (6,981) (6,754)   (13,376) (13,161)
Administrative expenses (1,482) (1,487)   (2,777) (2,690)
Other operating income and expenses 23 (97)   (161) (371)
Income (loss) from investments in Joint Ventures and associated companies (6) 17   36 79
Income from other investments 1 (24)   (19) (18)
Operating income 2,846 7,322   2,947 13,228
           
   Operating margin, % 4.0 9.0   2.3 8.4
           
Operating income before depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) 5,973 10,055   8,922 18,740
   EBITDA margin, % 8.4 12.4   7.0 11.9