SEK bn  Change (excluding currency) Currency impact Total
Operating income 2012     18.1
Change in gross income Industrial operations1) (1.6) (5.4) (7.0)
Change in gross income Customer financing 0.3 0 0.3
Higher credit losses 2) (0.5) 0 (0.5)
Change in group structure  (1.4) 0 (1.4)
Lower capitalization of development cost (1.3) 0.1 (1.2)
Lower research and development expenditures 0.1 0.4 0.5
Higher selling and administrative expenses (2.6) 1.5 (1.1)
Revaluation of assets held for sale (Volvo Rents) (1.5) 0 (1.5)
Volvo profit sharing program 0.2 0 0.2
Restructuring and efficiency program 0.8 0 0.8
Other (0.1) 0 (0.1)
Operating income 2013     7.1

1) During 2013 gross income was affected by lower volumes which was partly offset by an improvement in price variances and warranty cost.
2) Of the total credit losses SEK 0.3 billion are related to customer financing.