Risks and uncertainties

External-related risk

The commercial vehicles industry is cyclical
The Volvo Group’s markets undergoes significant changes in demand as the general economic environment fluctuates. Investments in infrastructure, major industrial projects, mining and housing construction all impact the Group’s operations as its products are central to these sectors. Adverse changes in the economic conditions for the Volvo Group's customers may also impact existing order books through cancellations of previously placed orders. The cyclical demand for the Group’s products makes the financial result of the operations dependable on the Group's ability to react to changes in demand, in particular to the ability to adapt production levels and production and operating expenses.

Intense competition
Continued consolidation in the industry is expected to create fewer but stronger competitors. Our major competitors are Daimler, Paccar, Navistar, MAN, Scania, Caterpillar, Komatsu, Cummins and Brunswick. In recent years, new competitors have emerged in Asia, particularly in China. These new competitors are mainly active in their domestic markets, but are expected to increase their presence in other parts of the world.

Prices may change
The prices of commercial vehicles have, at times, changed considerably in certain markets over a short period. This instability is caused by several factors, such as short-term variations in demand, shortages of certain component products, uncertainty regarding underlying economic conditions, changes in import regulations, excess inventory and increased competition. Overcapacity within the industry can occur if there is a lack of demand, potentially leading to increased price pressure.

Extensive government regulation
Regulations regarding exhaust emission levels, noise, safety and levels of pollutants from production plants are extensive within the industry.

Most of the regulatory challenges regarding products relate to reduced engine emissions. The Volvo Group is a significant player in the commercial vehicle industry and one of the world’s largest producers of heavy-duty diesel engines. The product development capacity within the Volvo Group is well consolidated to be able to focus resources for research and development to meet tougher emission regulations. Future product regulations are well known, and the product development strategy is well tuned to the introduction of new regulations.