Basic earnings per share 
Income for the period attributable to shareholders of the Parent Company divided by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period.

Capital expenditures 
Capital expenditures include investments in property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and assets under operating leases. Investments in fixed assets included in the Group's cash-flow statement include only capital expenditures that have reduced the Group's liquid funds during the year. 

Combined changes in the Group's liquid funds during the fiscal year. Changes in liquid funds are specified with reference to changes in operations, operating activities, changes depending on investments in equipment, fixed assets etc. and financing activities such as changes in loans and investments.

Diluted earnings per share
Diluted earnings per share is calculated as income for the period attributable to the Parent Company's shareholders divided by the average number of shares outstanding plus the average number of shares that would be issued as an effect of ongoing share-based incentive programs and employee stock option programs.

EBITDA is the operating income before depreciation and amortization of tangible and intangible assets. This key figure is calculated by adding back depreciation and amortization on the operating income of the Industrial operations.

Equity ratio
Shareholders' equity divided by total assets.

Financial targets
Information on how the comparison with competitors is made is available under the heading Investors on

Interest coverage
Operating income plus interest income and similar credits divided by interest expense and similar charges.

Joint ventures
Companies over which the Company has joint control together with one or more external parties.

Net financial position
Cash and cash equivalents, marketable securities and interest-bearing short- and long-term receivables reduced by short- and long-term interest-bearing liabilities and provisions for post-employment benefits.

Operating margin 
Operating income divided by net sales.

Penetration rate
Share of unit sales financed by Volvo Financial Services in relation to total number units sold by the Volvo Group in markets where financial services are offered.

Return on shareholders' equity
Income for the period divided by average shareholders' equity.

Self-financing ratio
Cash-flow from operating activities (see Cash-flow statement) divided by net investments in fixed assets and leasing assets as defined in the cash-flow statement.